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Child malnutrition is a complex issue influenced by various factors that can be categorized into immediate, underlying, and basic determinants. Understanding these causes is crucial for developing effective strategies to address and prevent child malnutrition.

Immediate Causes
Inadequate Dietary Intake: Insufficient consumption of essential nutrients, such as proteins, vitamins, and minerals, due to a lack of access to diverse and nutritious foods.
Infections and Diseases: Illnesses, particularly infectious diseases like diarrhoea, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections, can increase nutrient requirements, reduce nutrient absorption, and contribute to malnutrition.

Underlying Causes
Household Food Security: Limited access to a consistent and diverse supply of nutritious foods within households.
Care Practices and Hygiene: Inadequate breastfeeding, poor weaning practices, and lack of proper hygiene can contribute to malnutrition.
Health Services: Limited access to healthcare services, including immunization, maternal care, and treatment of illnesses, can impact child health and nutrition.
Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH): Lack of access to clean water and sanitation facilities can contribute to the spread of diseases and affect nutritional status.

Basic Determinants
Socioeconomic Factors: Poverty, low income, and lack of resources contribute to food insecurity and hinder access to healthcare and education.
Maternal Health and Nutrition: The health and nutritional status of mothers during pregnancy and lactation significantly influence the child’s health and development.
Education: Lack of education, particularly for mothers, can limit awareness of proper nutrition and healthcare practices.
Cultural and Social Factors: Cultural practices, beliefs, and societal norms can influence dietary habits, childcare practices, and access to resources.

Global and Environmental Factors
Climate Change: Environmental factors, including climate change and extreme weather events, can impact food production, availability, and access.
Conflict and Displacement: Civil conflicts, wars, and displacement can disrupt food systems, healthcare, and the overall well-being of children.

Addressing child malnutrition requires a multi-faceted approach that tackles these various determinants. Interventions should encompass improvements in food security, healthcare services, education, and socio-economic conditions, as well as targeted efforts to promote optimal care practices and nutrition for mothers and children.

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